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The term reformation refers to the religious and political upheavals caused by the new protestant religion within the early 16th century. Reformation began within the European countries in the 16th century so as to reform the abuses within the Roman Catholic Church.
In its essence, the reformation was a revolt against conventions that had lost the justification and had become fetters upon intellectual and spiritual progress rather than aids to its advancement.
It was a Revolt against the Roman papacy, and ultimately Shattered the supreme position of the Pope which he enjoyed throughout the centre age. aside from its attack on the institutions of catholicism.
Protestantism generally laid new stress on the individual’s state of mind within the Spiritual struggle between doubt and Faith: the individual is alone before God, and only faith will cause his salvation.
The reef formation mints the appliance of the spirit of enquiry to the religious sphere And manifested itself in bitter opposition to the exaggerated Authority of the Church as an important intermediary between man and his God.
During this sense, it had been humanistic because it believed within the capacity of man to manage his own spirit affairs through the soul guidance of the Bible and fight the temptations of the planet, the Flash the Devil.
In this way, The Renaissance and Reformation were the products of an equivalent Impulse of freedom which was released by new learning.
The immediate cause for the breach with Rome was the question of ‘ divorce ‘ . Henry wanted to be divorced from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, who had been his wife for 18 years. she bore him seven children, but all of them died except Princess Mary. Henry Wanted a male inheritor, for the want of a male heir, made the Tudor dynasty seem insecure.
Moreover, he fell crazy with the sprightly and voluptuous Boleyn. under these circumstances, a Pointed question was Pricking his heart. it had been an issue whether nor Henry had ever been her first husband. little question a papal dispensation had been obtained but could the pop grant dispensation from law.
The royal duty must be relieved and in 1527 Henry asked cardinal Wolsey to get it but he failed badly. The Pope couldn’t oblige Henry, because after the sack of Rome the Pope was within the power of Charles V of Spain, who was the nephew of Catherine. The Pope couldn’t Displace Him and thus displeased Henry
Long Parliament of the Reformation
It seemed intolerable to Henery that the interest of England should be subjected, through the Pope, to the desire of Charles V.
In his anger at his personal grievance, he thought that England If if she would be a nation indeed must repudiate a Spiritual jurisdiction manipulated by her foreign rivals And enemies.
The instrument was chosen by HenryTo to affect the Reformation Was parliament Which was by tradition even able to attack the Church and genuinely Devoted to its masterful Prince.
Assisted by Cromwell, Henry VIII forced the conviction to interrupt with the POPe. The convection acknowledged with a sigh Henry was the supreme head of the church of England’ with the scrupulous addition thus far because the law of Christ allows. The clergy had thus Forsworn the authority of the Pope and accepted the of the king
To confirm England’s breach which Rome, the parliament passed a number of acts. by one of the earliest acts, the convocation was told that it must agree first to make no laws in future without the king’s licence, and secondly to accept beforehand a version of the whole existing body of church law. The heavy payments, which were made by newly elected bishops to the Pope.
The region of Mary (1553-58)
Marry the first woman to the role of England as queen, was the daughter of Catherine of Aragorn. She was a Catholic, her mission was to bring back England to the Catholic faith. The achieve This end, she married King Philip of Spain in 1554. aimed great resentment and began The Precaution clergy. see aloud cardinal pole the Papal legate, to come to England and induced parliament to or repeal Henry 4th ecclesiastical laws.
The Elizabethan settlement
Queen Elizabeth adopt A middle course policy and completed the course of English reformation by giving a permanent character to the Anglican church. She won over the moderate men of the Catholics and the Puritans.
Her church settlement was a political compromise” between Catholic and Puritanism between the Church of Rome and Church of Geneva”. she allowed wide freedom of opinion but insisted on outward conformity of attending church service. She reverted to the system off Edward 4th in 1559. the parliament to passed the “Act of supremacy” by which the reactionary legislation off Mary was repeated.
she drops the odious title” supreme head of the church” for the less offensive title” supreme governor” this was done to win over the Catholics and Puritans. the act of uniformity decreased that all church services should be held only according to the second group prayer book of Edward VI. in 1563, The 39 articles of faith were dropped. with certain revisions the remain to this day the creed of the Anglican Church.
Effect of the reformation on social life
one of the effects of the Reformation was that it evolved a kind of religion of the home, especially the middle class and quite unmedieval. the Squires, lawyers’ merchants and yeomen accepted the new faith. They tended two become protestant alike from interest and conviction.
The tendency of protestant doctrine was to exalt the married state. And to dedicate the business life, in reaction against the mediaeval doctrine that the true life of religion was celibacy and monastic separation from the world.
The permission to marry conceded to clergy under Edward VI and Elizabeth was one symptom of this change of thought. the religious home was the protestant ideal with family prayer and private Bible reading in addition to the services and sacraments off the church.
Influence of the Reformation on English literature
Like the Renaissance, The reformation also lifts its mark on English literature. Religious literature was produced in England under the impact of the reformation. It gave England its Bible, preparing the way for the authorised version of the Bible which was produced in 1611.
Tyndale’s Bible and the book of common prayer are no glorious achievements of the reformation. Tyndale based his translation of the Bible on the Original Sources. he made the study of the Bible with its human element, exceedingly popular among the masses who are stayed up all night to peruse it, and relinquished in its favour their old chapbooks and tales of King Arthur and his round table and of Robin Hood.
The reformation also produced a number of tracts, treatises, sermons and books of prayer. Hugh Latimer a preacher, wrote some of the most beautiful pages of English rose of the period his sermons or remarkable for their plain and dogmatic exposition their graphical power, and their homily appeal. he is the first of the writers of plane style.