sonnet

What is sonnet? Shakespeare sonnets form

Forms Poet Sonnet William Shakespeare

Sonnet Definition

The Sonnet is a kind of lyric poetry. it consists of only 14 lines with a particular rhyming arrangement. Its cheap quality is that it expresses a single thought or emotion and its charm lies in the charm of the poet’s personality. The  Sonnet originated in Italy in the 13th century and Dante is considered to be the father of Sonnet. letter it was perfected by Petrarch. 

Petrarchan Sonnets

The subject of an Italian Sonnet was only love between men and women and the poets did not impose it on any other subject. These Italian sonnets were divided into two parts. the Octave and the sestet. The Octave consisted of its lines and set  6 lines. generally, the first line rhymes with IV and the second with the third. The same pattern was repeated in the second stanza also.

 Petrarch generally addresses his sonnets to a lady laura. Whom He was in love with. Dante Addressed His sonnets to Beatrice.  This poetic form had Gained the greatest popularity in Italy in the 15th century. it started spreading in Spain and France during the only 16th century from where it reached England later. 

Wyatt and Surrey sonnets

The credit of transporting the sonnets from England goes to Wyatt and surrey. Wyatt adopted the Petrarchan sonnet from and many of his contemporaries followed his example, thus this form gained quick popularity. 

Although Wyatt was not a poet of great genius and did not produce remarkable sonnets, But he had at least introduced this form in English poetry. So his contribution to the popularity of his sonnet cannot be overlooked or neglected. He imparted passion and emotion and enthusiasm in poetry for the first time. His love sonnets are great with high emotions. He produced about thirty-one sonnets and all of them possess poetic exlencess, beauty and lofty emotions. He translated 10 sonnets of Petrarch. 

 The Earl of Surrey Developed the Sonnet writing to a great extent and the credit of popularizing it mostly goes to him. He gave a new turn to it. he did not accept the  Petrarchan form as Wyatt had done. His contribution lies in perfecting it. Shakespeare adopted the Sonnet form from surrey. he wrote chiefly love sonnets addressed to Geraldine or Lady Elizabeth Fitzgerald.

The sonnets are most remarkable for their atmosphere of melancholy and sadness. We often hear the poet’s cries of the disappointment of love in them. Their chief contribution to Sonnet is that they made the Sonnet particularly personal in nature. There are some impersonal sonnets also but they are satirical in tone but they are not very popular. 

Sonnets could not gain popularity for a very long period after Wyatt and Surrey. this form was almost on the verge of death sir Philip Sidney adopted it and infused new life in them.  He revived them and they were once again accepted by the poets as a popular poetic form. He composed about 100 sonnets of extraordinary beauty and charm and they have been collected in Astrophel and Stella.

Sidney’s sonnets

Sidney’s sonnets Proved extremely inspiring to his contemporaries and after the publication of Astrophel and Stella, There was a rich harvest of Sonnet in England. although the number of sonnet writers was very large. Only  Spenser and Shakespeare are worth consideration. Spenser composed 88 love sonnets and all of them have been addressed to Elizabeth Boyle. The feelings expressed in these sonnets are true and simple. there is no symbolism but its expression of the heart of the poet. 

After Sidney Daniel was the most popular Sonnet writer of this age. he depended on foreign inspiration and followed the model of Tasso.  his collection is known as Delia. They are primally Love sonnets and have been addressed to an imaginary lady.

Shakespeare sonnets form

 Shakespeare is the most popular Sonnet writer of the Elizabethan age and he composed 100 and 54 sonnets which were published in 1609 by Thomas Thorpe.  This collection is not very appealing because it is full of many printing mistakes. many effects have been made to rearrange them which in itself is a very difficult job.

The whole collection consists of two clearly distinguishable series. In the first series, the first 126 sonnets have been addressed to some youth of great beauty and the second series Consisting of the rest of his sonnets create the idea that there was some dark lady as his mistress whom the poet loved most deeply.

Milton Sonnets form

 After  Shakespeare, The sonnets were not much popular in English poetry this form was never completely neglected. Milton composed a number of beautiful sonnets and his subjects are varied. Inform hi adopted the Italian style while  Shakespeare had invented a sonnets pattern from those of the classical ones.

He did not divide his sonnets into Octave and sestet rather there for three stanzas of four lines each and a rhyming couplet at the end. all three stanzas are different in rhyming but the pattern is the same. the first line rhymes with the third and II with IV. the whole theme and idea are developed in these stanzas in a logical manner. in the couplet the poet patterns the conclusion of what he has said earlier.

But  Milton adopted the classical technique. his sonnets have Octave and sestet. The Octave has two stanzas of four lines each and the rhyming scheme of the first four lines is repeated in the next so in structure they are quite identical. The first rhymes with IV and the same rhyme are repeated in the fifth and eighth.

Similarly, the secant line rhymes with thought and it is repeated in the sixth and seventh. The sestet follows two different rhyming schemes; sometimes there are three groups of two lines each rhyming alternately.  sometimes there for only three lines repeated again in the next 3. after Milton the Sonnet form was almost forgotten.

They were revived with freshness and great vigor during the period of romantic Revival in the hands of Wordsworth and Keats. But the love theme had been replaced by nature, and otherworldly problems so that the Grandeur of the sun was almost lost and it could not regain the glory which it had enjoyed in the hands of Sidney, Shakespeare, and Milton. 

What do you know about Amoretti ?

Amoretti is a Sonnet sequence/well known  collection of sonnets composed by Edmund Spenser. It was first published in the year of 1595 (London); William Ponsby published it.

Who composed ” Idea’s Mirror” (1594) the cycle of sixty-four Sonnets?

It was Michael Drayton (1563 -1631) who wrote the sonnet sequence ” Idea’s Mirror” which comprises sixty-four (64) sonnets.

What is the rhyme scheme of Spenserian Sonnet ?

Spenserian sonnet(s) rhymes as – ABAB BCBC CDCD EE.

What is the rhyme scheme of Shakespearean Sonnets ?

The sonnets of Shakespeare rhyme ABAB CDCD EFEF GG.

What is the title of the  famous autobiographical sonnet of John Milton ?

“On His Blindness” is the eminent autobiographical sonnet of John Milton.

Which book of D. G. Rossetti is a collection of his 100 sonnets ?

The book of D. G. Rossetti (1828 -1882) “The House of Life” is a collection or sonnet sequence of hundred sonnets.

 What is a curtal sonnet?

Curtal sonnet is a (poetic) form of eleven lines; or (more accurately) we can  call it  a ten-and-a-half-line poem/sonnet which rhymes as ABCABC DBCDC.

Who is credited to invent the curtal sonnet ?       

 It was the English poet G. M. Hopkins (1844 – 1889) who invented the form curtal sonnet.

 Who invented curtal sonnet form ?

It was the English poet G. M. Hopkins (1844 – 1889) who invented the form curtal sonnet.

Give examples of curtal sonnets.

G. M. Hopkins’ poems “Ash Boghus”, “Peace”, as well as “Pied Beauty” are examples of curtal sonnet form.

petrarchan sonnet Petrarchan Sonnets shakespearean sonnet form Sonnet Definition sonnets

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